In this post we ask the question: what is ? It is clear that

Then

So

Thus

Therefore

A simple test:

.

Now

can be written as

thus we obtain

which can be written as

Therefore it is clear that IF this expression is TRUE for THEN it is also TRUE for . As the expression is TRUE for it is TRUE for all positive integers . So we obtain

Now we may wonder about . It is clear that

thus

As

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